Month: January 2018

Update: CISA Certification and Frequently Asked Questions

CISA logoIn August 2014, I published a post about my experience with the CISA exam and the required experience. Even 3 years later, it is still the most popular post here and not so long ago, I was always seeing more requests after the exam dates. However, it seems that exams are not on specific dates anymore but within 3 specific testing windows throughout the year. I am still surprised by the number of comments I received on this post and I wanted to do an update with some recurrent questions.

Exam Before the Required Experience

It is absolutely possible to pass the exam before having the required experience. I would even recommend it to show your interest toward this field. Your current or future employer will recognize the effort invested in passing the exam. However, you have to keep in mind that you will have to obtain the required work experience and send your certification application within 5 years from the date of the exam. If you really need 5 years of experience and it is not possible to have any waiver, maybe the timeframe is unfortunately too short. But if you only need 2 to 3 years of experience, it is a good plan, in my opinion.

Even if you can’t introduce yourself as being CISA certified, it will definitely be an advantage to mention during an interview that you passed the exam. You will also receive a letter from ISACA with your passing score that you can use as a proof.

Substitutions and Waivers

You will need a minimum of 5 years of work experience in order to obtain the certification. It goes without saying that you need to pass the exam too with a score of 450 or higher. However, it is possible to obtain 1 to 3 years as substitutions and waivers of this experience. In any case, you will always need at least 2 years of work experience related to CISA domains.

  • One year : Any work experience in information technology (IT) or any work related to auditing. For example, financial auditing or compliance work experience such as SOX would be a valid auditing experience.
  • One year : For 60 completed university credit hours which are normally 2 years as a full-time student. The credit hours could be for an undergraduate and/or graduate degree. There is also no mention that you actually need to have obtained the related degree, as long as you have proof that you have completed the courses. It could be from any recognized university, on-site or distant learning.
  • Two years : For 120 completed university credit hours which are normally 4 years as a full-time student.
  • One year : With a master in information security or information technology.
  • One year : With a bachelor or a master degree that enforces the ISACA-sponsored Model Curricula.

Experience

The easiest way to obtain the work experience for the CISA certification is obviously to be an IT auditor. But it is not always possible for everyone and it is definitely not a requirement. It is important to carefully read all the job practice areas including the task and knowledge statements. There are many candidates who are surprised by these statements. The CISA practice areas include many work fields in IT and not only IT audits.

CISA Application

You will have to get the work experience 10 years before the certification application or within 5 years from the date of the exam. You only have to send your application to ISACA when you actually have all required experience. In any case, you absolutely have to submit your application within 5 years from the passing date of the exam.

Financial to IT Audit

If you are already performing financial audit with a CPA designation, it is absolutely possible to do the transition to IT audits. You could simply ask to be more involved with IT controls. You will already have the advantage to have an understanding on how audit works. There are many IT General Controls (ITGC) that don’t require advanced IT knowledge in order to be adequately audited. The Big 4 use an army of interns to audit these IT controls.

Jobs

There are many more jobs related to the CISA than being an IT auditor. Many positions related to IT risk and compliance, even information security. However, there are other certifications if you want to work in information security and a candidate with the CISA would not be my first choice. I would recommend doing a search on a job posting website such as Indeed.

Worldwide Recognition

ISACA and the CISA certification are well recognized worldwide. A quick search on a job posting website and you will probably have many results. Furthermore, there are more than 200 local chapters worldwide.

CPE

When you are officially awarded with the CISA certification, you will then have to complete your continuing professional education (CPE) credits. The ISACA membership is not a requirement. However, I would recommend it to have access to many free resources in order to obtain your CPE credits.

ISACA Website

All information provided here could change anytime and the reference must always be the ISACA website. The page “How to Become CISA Certified” is mainly the reference about common questions related to the CISA certification. If you are unsure about your experience and possible waivers, I would recommend validating directly with ISACA and/or your local chapters. Each application is different and they are the only one able to validate your application.

Cloud Security with Object Storage

AWS logoMany cloud providers are often criticized for the security provided with object storage services. Even more after the disclosure of private information that occurred in 2017 by using these services. These security breaches were also from well-known organizations such as Verizon, Accenture, Booz Allen Hamilton, Viacom, National Security Agency, National Credit FederationAustralian Broadcasting Corporation, Department of DefenseRepublican National Committee, etc. There are often new organizations to add on this list but they are the main one from the last months. These organizations were mainly using the object storage service S3 from AWS.

Object Storage

This is not a technology only provided by AWS with the S3 service. There are many services provided by other well-recognized cloud providers to store files in the cloud such as Azure, Google Cloud, DigitalOcean, IBM, etc. However, AWS S3 is definitely the object storage service that is the most used by many organizations. The service was also first released in 2006 before other services from competitors. The statistics are a little bit old but as of April 2013, AWS mentioned that S3 has more than 2 trillion objects stored with 1.1 million requests per second. In 2018, it is possible to assume these numbers are even higher.

Amazon S3 is often wrongly targeted by the media. It is simply the most popular service used by many organizations of all size. We have to keep in mind that object storage is only a way to store files, often with a cloud provider but it could also be with a private infrastructure.

IT Administrators

I often read some IT professionals and even information security professionals to have doubts on these services. Mainly doubts on the security measures available to protect the information stored. It is important to understand that security breaches related to object storage are often not related to the underlying technologies. Cloud providers such as AWS, Google and Azure are able to provide secure environment for your files. The configuration for such spaces, or buckets in S3 terms, is secure and private by default. How is it possible in this case to have public files on the Internet?

Simply ask your IT administrators. It is more a question of misconfiguration. In order to authorize a public access to the stored files, someone actually needs to perform a manual action to change the default behaviour. The approach would be different for each service but the principle is the same. It is possible to manage accesses on S3 with rules but other services could be simpler with an option to be set at “Private” or “Public”. This is often a configuration available for the space and/or per file.

Maybe it is the time to review the accesses implemented for your files stored in the cloud? From object storage services like S3 but also on services like Office 365, Dropbox, Google Drive, etc. It is so easy to forget about a file that should not be available for all on Internet.

Third-Party Vendors

Are you aware of your third-party vendors who could use object storage with your information? For example, with Verizon and Republican National Committee, in both situations, third-party vendors were involved i.e. Nice Systems and Deep Root Analytics. Organizations easily trust more and more third-party vendors and share confidential information. This data can be about the organization operations but often on clients. Nevertheless, it is important to evaluate the information sent to external vendors and to understand how this one uses the data.